Oceanography Test Review
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Oceanography ‚ÄďTest Review #1 ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬†Oct 6, 2014 ¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†FoltzMany of the test questions come directly from the PowerPoint presentations, so they are a great place to find the information needed to complete this review.Marine science:¬†Studying the processes of the ocean; how the ocean ‚Äėworks‚Äô and ‚Äėworks together‚ÄôOceanography:¬†Recording and describing the contents/processes of the ocean. Disciplines of Oceanography include Physical Oceanography, Chemical Oceanography, Geological Oceanography, Biological Oceanography.List and describe the steps of the scientific method: Oh, = Observation and ResearchHe = Hypothesis (if then statement, educated guess)Eats = Experiment (include repeated trials)At = Analysis (use math for good, not evil!)Chucky = Conclusion. ¬†Is the hypothesis supported or not?Cheese = Communication. ¬†Tell the world your good news!What is the ocean‚Äôs role in Earth‚Äôs climate?¬†Water has a high heat capacity, which means that it can store and transport heat around the globe through currents‚Äô flow. ¬†Warm from the Equator, Cold from the poles. Balances out the temperatures of the planet.How does man affect the oceans?¬†Pollution-spills, noise, acidification, temperature (Natural/manmade) Bad Animal!Can you name and locate all six oceans?¬† Psych! ¬†There are only 5, yo. Arctic, Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Southern (around Antarctica)Why is the Global Positioning System (GPS) important to marine researchers?¬†So they know exactly where they are working. How does it work?¬† Uses a network of geo-synchronous satellites communicating with GPS receivers on the ground. The satellites put out a time stamp and the receiver calculates latitude, longitude, and altitude using the signals from three satellites (triangulation.) How do compasses work?¬†Align with the magnetic field of the Earth. ¬†Don‚Äôt point to geographical North, but magnetic North (hence Declination, the difference between Geo and Mag North poles)Diagram and explain the latitude and longitude coordinate system.¬†Indicate the location of the 0¬į latitude and 0¬į longitude. ¬†Be able to find points on a map and give their latitude and longitude.How were the location of the North Star and the invention of the chronometer essential to long distance sailing?¬† Latitude is findable using the North Star‚Äôs distance above the horizon. (Equator = 0, North Pole = 90) ¬†The chronometer allows for easy calculation of longitude. ¬†(Every hour = 15 degrees of Longitude)What were the reasons that early civilizations interacted with the oceans?¬†Food, transportation, trade, fun, exploration, power.Chronicle the attempts of Prince Henry, Dias, and Da Gamma to get to India:¬†Going around Africa to get to India for all the goodies there! ¬†Da Gamma finally makes it, but Dias was close! ¬†Da Gamma figured out that sailing with the currents (almost to the South American coast) was the easiest way to get around the South AtlanticSummarize the voyages of James Cook. How did they differ from explorers before him?¬† Sailed the Pacific with Harrison‚Äôs chronometer Arctic to Antarctic circles. ¬†Voyages were for exploration, not so much about getting power and converting the natives.What was the purpose of Columbus‚Äô four voyages? ¬†Was he the first to realize that South America was a new continent? ¬†Trying to get to India, made it to the Caribbean. ¬†Amerigo Vespucci was the first to recognize that South America was a ‚Äėnew‚Äô continent.Who was the first to lead an expedition around the world?¬† The second? ¬†Gellin‚Äô like Magellan (started with 260 men and 5 ships, ended with 18 men (none named Magellan) and one ship. ¬†Sir Francis Drake did much better, proving that nice guys finish last.Detail the accomplishments and significance of the following:Polynesian sailors¬†‚Äď First to make regular voyages out of the sight of land. ¬†Used oral tradition to pass down information about currents, winds, and waves to aid navigation. Eratosthenes ‚Äď Greek, calculated the circumference of the Earth (Hey, which means that they knew the Earth was round! Well, duh‚Ķ) using geometry and the sun shining down into wells to get his data.Chinese contributions to seafaring- Made larger ships due to watertight compartment-style construction. ¬†Developed the use of the compass for navigation. (From ‚Äėspoons‚Äô carved from lodestone hanging by strings or balanced on brass plates.) ¬†Developed the centrally-located rudder mounted on the rear of the ship, which made the ship more controllable or maneuverable. ¬†Chris also said that fireworks, flares, silk, and spaghetti (brought back to Europe by Marco‚Ķ‚Ķ.POLO!)

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