BLOODEssence of lifeUncontrolled loss can ¬†lead to deathHas ¬†magical qualitiesThought to define our character and emotionsBlue blood ‚éĮ¬† people with noble bloodline‚Äúbad‚ÄĚ blood ‚éĮ¬†criminalsAnger causes blood to ¬†‚Äúboil‚ÄĚFear makes it ‚Äúcurdle‚ÄĚPerforms many functions essential ¬†to ¬†life and reveal much about our healthBlood ¬†maintains homeostasis in several ways8% of total body weightFUNCTIONSTransport of gases, nutrients and waste productsOxygen enters the blood in the lungs and is carried to cells(Oxygen ‚Üí¬†blood in lungs ‚Üí¬†cells)CO2 , produced by cells is carried in the blood to lungs, from which it is expelled ¬†(CO2 in cells‚Üíblood‚Üílungs)Transports ingested nutrients, ions, and water¬†from the digestive tract to cellsTransports¬†waste products of cells to the kidneys for eliminationTransport of processed moleculesMany substances are produced in one part of the body and transported in the blood to another part, ¬†where they are modifiedVitamin DProduced in the¬†skinTransported by¬†blood ‚Üí¬†liver‚Üí¬† kidneys (processing into active vit. D)Blood transports active vit. D to small intestine¬†(promotes uptake of calcium)LactateProduced by skeletal muscles¬†(anaerobic respiration)Blood carries lactate to the liver¬†(lactate‚Üíglucose)Transport of regulatory moleculesBlood carries many of the hormones and enzymeshormones and enzymesregulate body processes¬†from one part of the body to anotherRegulation of pH and osmosisBuffers¬† ‚éĮ¬†help maintain blood‚Äôs pH within its normal limits of 7.35-7.45Osmotic composition¬†‚éĮ¬†critical for maintaining normal fluid and ion balanceMaintenance of body temperatureWarm bloodTransported from the interior of the body¬†to the surface¬†(heat is released from the blood)One of the mechanisms¬†that help regulate body temperatureProtection against foreign substancesCertain cells and chemicals¬†in the blood constitute an important part of the immune systemProtects against foreign substances such as microorganisms and toxins¬†Clot formationWhen blood vessels are damaged, blood clotting¬†protects against excessive blood lossWhen tissues are damaged, the blood clot¬†that forms is also the first step in tissue repair¬†and restoration of normal functionCOMPOSITION OF BLOODPLASMALiquid matrix¬†containing cells and cell fragmentsSlightly more than half ¬†of total blood volumeFORMED ELEMENTSCell ¬†and cell fragmentsSlightly less ¬†than half of total ¬†blood volumeTotal blood volume: 5-6 L (M); ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† 4-5 L (F)PLASMAPale yellow fluid that consists of about 91% water, 7% proteins¬†and 2% other components¬†(ions, nutrients, gases, waste products and regulatory substances)Contains dissolved proteinsInclude albumin, globulins, and fibrinogenAlbumin58% of plasma proteinsMakes an important contribution in the osmotic pressure of bloodGlobulins38% of plasma proteinsE.g. ¬†antibodies and complement are part of the immune systemOther globulins and albumin function as ¬†transport molecules¬†because they bind to hormones and carry them in the blood throughout the bodySome are¬†Clotting factors¬† ‚éĮ¬†necessary for formation of ¬†blood clotsFibrinogenClotting factor¬†(4% of plasma proteins)Activation of clotting factors ‚éĮ¬†convert fibrinogen to fibrils (threadlike proteins that form blood clots¬† ¬† ¬† ¬†SerumPlasma without clotting factorsFORMED ELEMENTS95% erythrocytes/red blood cells5% ¬†leukocytes/white blood cells¬†and platelets/thromobocytes(cell fragments)RBC 700x¬†more numerous than WBCRBC 17x¬†more numerous than plateletsPRODUCTION OF FORMED ELEMENTSHematopoiesis ‚éĮ¬†Blood cell production‚éĮ¬†In the fetus, occurs in several tissues:LiverThymusSpleenLymph nodesRed bone marrow¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ‚éĮ After birth¬†hematopoiesis is confined primarily to red bone marrow¬†with some WBC produced in lymphatic tissuesStem cells/hemocytoblastsSingle population of cells where all ¬†formed elements are derivedDifferentiate to give rise to different cell lines, each of which ends with the formation of a particular type of formed elementGrowth factors determine the types¬†of formed elements derived from stem cells determine number¬†of formed elements produced

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Total Body Weightfunctionstransport Of Gases And Toxins Clot Formationwhen Blood Vessels. (April 3, 2021). Retrieved from