Human Nature – Critical Thinking
Essay Preview: Human Nature – Critical Thinking
Report this essay
Office hours – 7:00 – 7:30 am Tuesdays and Thursdays in ACD 304Interview is due 9/15.Human NatureThomas Hobbes – “Leviathan” – proposed government system based on human naturePlato – if you want well-run society, you need to have a realistic expectation of human nature. Hobbes had a unique twist on what Plato said.Critical Thinking – Introduction to the TextbookModels of critical thinkersSocrates (469-399 BCE) – didn’t actually write anything – all we have of him comes from other sources like PlatoAsserted that a life without rational reflection and thought wouldn’t even be worth living for a human being. He allowed himself to be executed by Athens rather than be forced to stop philosophical activity.Plato added some of his own thoughts to his recordings of what Socrates said, so it’s hard to determine where Plato begins and where Socrates begins and endsEarlier Dialogues are probably more indicative of what Socrates probably actually said and thoughtAristotle (384-322 BCE) – a statement is true if it corresponds with reality. Socrates’ most famous studentDefines essential function of humans as the rational activity of the soul. Often thought of as primary force in development of logic and reasoningValidity = if you assume promises to be true, it’s impossible for conclusion to be false.Analyzed the truth of statements as well.Came up with categorical logic as well as a philosophy on truthAristotle’s logic dominant until the 18th century. His views on how the world worked dominated till about the 16th century.Rene Descartes (1596-1650)Inventor of Cartesan coordinates, Cartesian dualismEarly modern philosopher, holds that the fact that I am a thinking thing is the primordial fact that testifies to my existence: I think, therefore I am.“Discourse on Method” BookMind is spiritual, body is physical and temporalThomas Hobbes (1588-1679)English philosopherCombines metaphysics, political philosophy, etc. in LeviathanState of nature theory, social contract theoryAdvocated monarchy, but on a different basis from “divine right”You need someone strong enough to enforce the rules of the Social ContractBorn into a dog-eat-dog world, so you should sacrifice some liberty for security. (Self-interest more specifically)Critical thinking vs. Ordinary thinkingCritical thinkingApply principles of logical reasoning to argue effectively for one’s viesRecognize, classify, and evaluate deductive and inductive argumentsObjectively and fairly evaluate and criticize arguments of other peopleDetermine if a factual claim or set of claims is true or falseRespond to fallaciesRecognize assumptions and biases in ourselves and others – Francis BaconFrancis Bacon came up with the “Four Idols” that impede truthSee all sides of an issue and seriously consider views that one may disagree withControl one’s emotions, especially with controversial topicsCritical thinking is NOT…Putting down or belitting.Negative. (i.e. is positive)Think of critical thinking as a film or food critic who can sharpen their skills and insight to judge between good/bad films and dishes.Three reasons to become a critical thinkerGives intellectual tools to make better choices as citizens, consumers, and individualsUniversal application to daily life and will make you better at whatever it is you choose to spend your time doingMakes you a better student and will have positive effect on your academic successSelf interest vs. Altruism – is everyone motivated by self interest?Psychological egoism – we are always deep dow motivated by what we perceive is in our self-interest. (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy)Psychological hedonism – conduct and especially all human behavior is fundamentally motivated by the pursuit of pleasure or the avoidance of pain (Merriam-Webster)Psychological altruism – against egoism and hedonism philosophies – sometimes, we can have PURELY and ultimately altruistic motives (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy)Next time – go over Chapter 1Exercises mainly geared on putting arguments in standard form

Get Your Essay

Cite this page

Thinking Thing And Human Nature. (April 2, 2021). Retrieved from