Introduction to Psychology
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Table of contents:
Chapter name
1. Introduction to Psychology
2. Performance Appraisal
3. Assessment Methods for Selection and Placement
4. Selecting Employees
5. Training and Development
Introduction to Psychology
Defining Psychology:
The word Psychology literally means, “Study of the soul”. It has got lots of modified definitions. The most popular one is, “Psychology is an academic and applied discipline that involves the scientific study of behavior & mental processes.” Psychology deals with study of such topics as perception, cognition, attention, emotion, motivation, brain functioning, personality, behavior, and interpersonal relationships.

Goals of psychology:
Psychology has its own goals. Goals mean targets. These goals are:
: Try to characterize how people (and other living beings) think, feel, or act in various kinds of situations.
Examples: What happens and when happens? How and where does it happen?
: Try to understand why living beings think, feel, or act as they do.
Examples: Why does it happen?
: Attempt to predict behavior, based on available information about past performance.
What will happen next?
: Seek to influence behavior.
Examples: How can we influence this behavior or intervene in this situation?
The first three goals (description, prediction, and control) are the easiest to achieve; there are many research methods available that can help psychologists to achieve those goals. The last goal, establishing cause and effect relationships, can only be achieved by research using the experimental method.

Research methods of psychology:
There are various methods for research in Psychology. These methods have got different attributes, facilities, advantages & disadvantages & so on. The methods are given below:

Naturalistic Observation: Its a process of observing and recording the behavior of humans or animals in their natural environment. It has got own merits and demerits.

Case Studies: Intensive description and analysis of a single individual or just a few individuals.
Surveys: A research technique in which questionnaires or interviews are administered to a selected group of people.
Correlational research: A research technique based on the naturally occurring relationship between two or more variables.
Experimental research: A research technique in which an investigator deliberately manipulates selected events or circumstances and then measures the effects of those manipulations on subsequent behavior.

Relating Research methods to Goals:
Goals of Psychology
Research Methods
To Describe
Case Studies, Naturalistic Observation, Survey Research
To Predict
Correlational Research
To Explain
Experimental Research
To Control
Often involves many steps in process
Subfields of Psychology:
Clinical Psychology
Cognitive Psychology
Community Psychology
Counseling Psychology
Developmental Psychology
Forensic Psychology
Biopsychology: Its also known as Behavioral Neuroscience. Its the Study of the biological structures that contribute to behavior, often focusing on the role of the brain and nervous system.

Clinical Psychology: Its study of how learning occurs and information stored in memory utilized.
Cognitive Psychology: Area of psychology concerned with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of psychological disorders and disturbances.
Community Psychology: The application of psychology to the study of social organizations such as neighborhoods, and the development of methods for evaluating and initiating changes in social policy.

Counseling Psychology: Its the area of psychology that maintains an emphasis on the positive aspects of human development and is focused on exploring and facilitating the strengths and assets of individuals, groups, and organizational units. It emphasizes the development of self-direction, life-stage coping skills, and educational strategies for change.

Developmental Psychology: Study of the growth, development, and changes that occur throughout the life cycle (changing abilities from womb to tomb)
Child Development focuses on changes and development that occurs during infancy, and childhood, often extending into adolescence. Adult Development focuses on the changes and development that occur during adulthood.

Forensic Psychology: Branch of psychology that studies possible relationships between psychopathology and criminal behavior. Sometimes work within court systems and conduct psychological evaluations on individuals accused of committing a crime, particularly juveniles.

Health Psychology: Study of the effects of psychological matters on physical well being. Often focus on developing programs to help individuals break physically unhealthy habits, or to reduce the likelihood of participation in such an activity.

Personality Psychology: It attempts to identify the factors that cause one person to think, feel, and behave differently from another person within a given situation. The study of

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Study Of The Soul And Research Methods. (April 3, 2021). Retrieved from