Essay title: Manorialism
Manorialism was an economic system that existed in Western Europe from about 1050 to 1300 CE. Serfs who worked for a lord farmed large fields. The lord owned the fields and lived in a large manor house. He owned between a third and a half of all the crops. The serfs also had a part of the fields for themselves. Serfs couldnt leave the manor and they had to give the lord a certain amount of their crops, but they could keep the surplus. The serfs lived together communally and worked the fields together using the three crop rotation. There was also a church and a parson who had his own house and part of the crops. Lords who were warriors that defended the manor and attacked neighboring manors created manors. The serfs had originally paid allegiance to the lords as they protected them and gathered land and wealth. One short-term effect of manorialism was that it gave the peasants who worked the field better working conditions than the slaves had received in earlier Roman estates. The serfs had more control over their lives. Some of the long-term effects of manorialism were an increase in the quality of all living conditions, chivalry, and better treatment of women. As farming conditions improved and the output of workers became greater, the lords started renting the land to the serfs and gave them greater mobility. Lords sometimes sold this freedom to the serfs. The lords gained financial wealth through selling freedom and charging rent, and the serfs gained greater control over their lives. The lords also changed their savagery in fighting as warriors for the ideals of chivalry. Chivalry was the “obligation of fighting in defense of honorable causes.”(418) The ideas that chivalry cherished resulted in the respect and idealization of upper-class women. This was a small advancement in the treatment of women, but it was better than most conditions that had existed before. (415-420)

Magna Carta
In England, 12th century, the barons created the Magna Carta. The Magna Carta was created to hold the King to the law and limited his power to gather finances from the kingdom. The Magna Carta made the King recognize that he was the ruler of his subjects and that as their ruler he must recognize their rights. This document helped to prevent King John from financing a war to retrieve territories that were lost to France during his rule. Under the Magna Carta the King had to attain the consent of a common council of barons in order to raise money for the Crown. A free man was also entitled to judgment before his equals and in accordance with the law before the state could enforce punishment. One short-term effect of the Magna Carta was that King John was denied the ability to finance a war with France. One long-term effect of the Magna Carta was that it limited government and bound the King to the law.(437)

Canon Law
The Western Church developed Canon Law during the 12th century. The ideas that drove the creation of the Canon Laws were conceived during the papacy of Pope Gregory VII. He saw the Church as an active organization that had to create “right order in the world”. Gregory VII thought that the papacy was superior to Kings and Emperors and he was very confrontational with them. His ideas drove the papacy to strive toward a “papal monarchy”. The Canon Laws were created as a basis for the Church to preside over matters pertaining to clergy as well as many civil areas such as marriage, adoption, and inheritance. The pope and bishops had the final say on all Court appeals in Canon Law courts. This gave the Church both power and prestige. One short-term effect of Canon Law was that Pope Innocent III had control of Kings and some of the rule over Western Europes governments. He brought Fredrick II to power in Germany and gained financial control over England as a fief. He was also able to call the Crusades and raise money through income tax. One long-term effect of Canon Law was that it changed the Church. It became more bureaucratic and legal-minded.(451-452)

Cult of Mary
In 12th century England the cult of Mary spread through the Western Church. The life and virtues of the Virgin Mary were taught by many sections of the Christian religion. The Cistercians taught and many new cathedrals that were built in the 12th century were dedicated to her. Those who followed the cult of Mary worshipped her as a savior to sinners who were still loving and contrite. They believed that in their hour of judgment Mary spoke for them and gave them a second chance. One short-term effect of the cult of Mary was that artists softened images of Mary to emphasize femininity and tenderness. This was a cause of a general softening in art and literature

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Short-Term Effect Of Manorialism And Long-Term Effects Of Manorialism. (June 14, 2021). Retrieved from