Ted Bundy Essay
Part 1: Risk
The risk principle essentially indicates that offenders should be supervised and treated to their “risk level” (Serin, Forth, Brown, Nunes, Bennell & Pozzulo. 2011:10). First we must define the term “risk”. Risk is a concept that is linked with the seriousness of the crime. However to Criminal Behavior Psychologists it is the probability of an offender re-offending. The risk principle consists of two elements. The first element is “the risk of reoffending can be predicted” (Serin, Forth, Brown, Nunes, Bennell & Pozzulo. 2011:10). The second element “more intense interventions should be in effect for higher risk offenders”. There are two types of risk offenders. Low risk offender is one with a low probability or reoffending, however a high-risk offender has a high probability of reoffending. Low risk offenders tend to have a few risk factors, where a high-risk offender would have many risk factors. Lower risk offenders should be treated with lower levels of treatment and supervision, because by following the risk principle it can actually impact the programs effectiveness (Serin, Forth, Brown, Nunes, Bennell & Pozzulo. 2011:10).
There are two components to the risk principle mentioned; the risk assessment is related to the principle because it is an assessment of an offenders risk to reoffend. The assessment is based on decisions by the correctional members such as parole officers or prison staff. Essentially it outlines the factor of the offender’s liberty and how it would impact the safety of the general public (Serin, Forth, Brown, Nunes, Bennell & Pozzulo. 2011:256). To determine the probability of criminal behavior on an offender, we most often use the actuarial approach. This approach means that we look at the characteristics of the offender and the situation this offender was in, through this research we can determine probability or criminal behavior (Serin, Forth, Brown, Nunes, Bennell & Pozzulo. 2011:256). There are three types of ways in conducting a risk assessment. A risk assessment can be done mathematically or through statistics to generate recidivism probabilities by weighing the risk factors and then combining them. We can also do a risk assessment by relying on structured professional judgment to generate indices of recidivism likelihood. From there decision makers can combine the risk factors to determine one last decision. Lastly the third approach to make predictions would be professional or clinical judgments (Serin, Forth, Brown, Nunes, Bennell & Pozzulo. 2011:257). All decisions would be done ones expertise rather then an instrument.
Part 2: Need
The need principle is where in order to reduce recidivism; we must aim at criminogenic needs. The need principle is intended to target multiple criminogenic needs. According to Andrew and his colleagues