Living as Illegal Border-Crossers: Social Suffering of the North Korean Refuges in China – Annotated Bibliography
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Annotated BibliographyJang, S. H. (2003). Living as illegal border-crossers: social suffering of the North Korean refuges in China. Korean Journal, 43(3), 212–232. Type of the source: Academic/Research Organization Type of child labor: begging, retailing, serving in service industry This research conducted in 1999, is based on fieldwork carried out in the Northeast of China. The research analyzes the social adversities experienced by North Korean refugees in China. According to Jang, teenage male children constitute a large fraction of the populace of North Korean migrants in China. These children survive either by drifting individually or are been secretly adopted by religious associations. These children often move in groups for security and companionship. Many children resort to begging, some are able to find labor in restaurants or shops presented by usually ethnic Koreans. However, those jobs are not long lasting due to the risks of being arrested. In addition, according to the research boys are an easy target for exploitation, as immoral and corrupt employers usually delay their wages and also alert the authorities before paying. Although being paid, the children earnings are much less than the usual salaries of the Chinese people. This disparity as cited by some ethnic Koreans is also blamed on the boys for quoting bad labor ethics of themselves. The article concludes with a suggestion of increased intergovernmental discussions on the issue, along with suggestion of empowering the refugees.
Matilac, R., & Florendo, R. (2002). Child trafficking in Southeast Asia. Source: NGO Child Labor: Begging, Day Labor, Drugs, Sexual Exploitation Child Trafficking: Begging, Day Labor, Drug Trade, Sexual Exploitation This study is an evaluation of the accessible literature on child trafficking from international associations, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), academic foundations and governments. The study illustrates child labor and child trafficking with the intentions of begging, drug dealing, and sexual abuse. The study also consists of data from interview with key informers. Pearson, E. (2005). The Mekong challenge—Human trafficking: Redefining demand. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Organization. Source: International Organization Child Labor: Jeans Child Trafficking: Jeans This report is an element of the eight-year project named TICW. The project was conducted from the year 2000 to 2008. According to the manuscript, in the year 2014, eighteen girls ranging from the age of eleven to fourteen years were rescued from Lao PDR from a jeans factory. These girls were initially being trafficked and then they were manipulated to work in exploitive circumstances. The document also observes the government signing of the UN Trafficking Protocol along with a memorandum with the government of Thailand on registering refugee workforce to avoid the exploitation.