Four Functions of Management
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The Culture of the 1920s
The Roaring Twenties started in North America and spread to Europe as the effects of World War I diminished. In Europe, the years following the First World War (1919-1923) were marked by a deep recession. Europe spent these years in rebuilding and coming to terms with the vast human cost of the conflict. Unlike in the aftermath of World War II, the United States did little to try to rebuild Europe. Instead, it took an increasingly isolationist stance (Answers, 2006).

In Canada, an important economic transformation accelerated as Britain was wholly supplanted by the United States as Canadas main economic partner. By the middle of the decade, economic development started to soar in Europe and the Roaring Twenties broke out in Germany, Britain and France, where the second half of this decade was termed “The Golden Twenties”. In France and Canada, they were also called the “Crazy Years” (annйes folles) (Answers, 2006).

The spirit of the Roaring Twenties was marked by a general feeling of discontinuity associated with modernity, and a break with traditions. A new and different era was felt to be coming up. Everything seemed to be feasible through modern technology; the limits that ecology and sustainability pose to economic and technological growth were yet unknown. Technologies, such as trains, cars and mass communication by radio and telephone, spread the idea of modernity to a large part of the population. Formal decorative frills were shed in favor of practicality, in architecture as well as in daily life. At the same time, amusement, fun and lightness were cultivated in jazz and dancing, in defiance of the horrors of World War I, which were still present in peoples minds. The period is often called the “Jazz Age” (Answers, 2006).

The 1920s was considered as the “New Era”. During this era, mass society, mass culture, and mass consumption was apart of the modern life. In the 1920s, the United States was in the middle of a revolution in the area of production. With a 64 percent increase in manufacturing; outputting per work hour around 40 percent. The most difficult to grasp was the sale of electricity and the consumption of fuel oil doubled. Americans were spread to their limits. Around 1922 and 1927, the economy grew by at least 7 percent a year.

The 20s was a time of changing and reinventing. At this time some sports were just starting out, others were broadening their horizons, while others were simply becoming more popular. New heroes were emerging in sports, new teams, and even new leagues. In the 1920s, there were many famous movies and movie actors. This was a time when films really began to become a popular past time, to watch and to star in. Also a new music style came about in the roaring twenties called jazz.

Sports went through many changes in the time period known as the roaring twenties. Sports, movies, and jazz became big in the recreational times of the 1920s. There are now over a million movie theaters, a ton of different sports leagues and teams, an uncountable number of golf courses and players, and plenty types of music. One finds this amazing how this all originated, in the Roaring Twenties.

The Roaring Twenties were a time of wild enjoyment, loud music and booming economy. In 1920, for the first time in American history, more Americans lived in cities than in the country, furthermore, average American working hours dropped, while their salary increased by 11 percent, which meant that there would be more spare time to spend on entertainment. New industries -car industry – improved the quality of life in America and contributed greatly towards the booming economy. The Twenties (20s) were an exciting time for young people. Young people began to rebel against the traditional idea (male – gallantry and gentleman-like, female – modest and maidenly), they began to drink and smoking cigarettes (the sale of cigarettes doubled during that decade).

Soon, however, film producers realized that they can make a great deal of money from famous stars, despite their high salary. Actors or Actresses such as Lillian Gish and Rudolf Valentino could ask for $400,000 a year. Lillian Gish was a beautiful actress who starred in “An Unseen Enemy” and “Annie Laurie” with her sister. Rudolf Valentino starred in “The Eagle and “The Son of the Sheik”.

Automobiles were one of the most important factors to make those entire features which are mentioned above more possible. Cars carried owners to their entertainments, sporting events and different shops.

The Roaring Twenties, however, did not benefit everyone. Farmers and working-class benefited very little from the Roaring Twenties, the growth of their average earnings were unmatchable in comparison to the growth of profits of shareholders.

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