Human Behavior in Organizations
formulated by Martin G. Evans and Robert J. House
a contingency theory based on expectancy theory of motivation that relates several leadership styles to specific employee and situational contingencies

two major roles:
create a goal orientation
improve path toward the goals
The Path-Goal Leadership Process
Leader identifies employee needs
Appropriate goals are established
Leader connects rewards with goals
Leader provides assistance on employee path toward goals
Employee become satisfied and motivated, and they accept the leader
Effective performance occurs
Both employees and organization are better able to reach their goals
Goal Setting
Human behavior is goal-directed
individual must understand the goals that they can attain
Path Improvement
Task support – assembling elements to get the job done
Psychological support – treating subordinates like they are rational human beings w/ the ability to do the job
Role modeling – effective leaders serve as role models by engaging in desirable behaviors. If a leader is considerate & supportive w/ followers, their responses will likely to be similar

Leadership Styles
Directive – same as the task-oriented leadership; clear role perceptions in employee performance
Supportive – same as people-oriented leadership; concern for employees’ well-being and needs, while trying to create a pleasant work environment
Achievement-oriented – applies goal-setting theory as well as positive expectations in self-fulfilling prophecy
Participative – invites employees to provide input to decisions, and seriously seeks to use their suggestions as final decisions are made
Contingency Factors
Two major factors that moderate the leader’s style and effectiveness:
General work environment – leader must identify:

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Major Roles And Specific Employee. (April 6, 2021). Retrieved from