Case Study #2
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Case Study 2
1. Make a list of the abnormal findings. Give the normal value for each abnormal finding.
Body temperature was abnormal, it normally should range around 98.2
Pulse rate was abnormal, in a adult it should be between 60-100 bpm
Harsh systolic murmur is abnormal, blood flows silently as long as the flow is uninterrupted
Uncooperation and thrashing in bed is abnormal, remaining calm and having the ability to cooperate with staff is normal
His rbc was abnormal, the normal range in an adult male is 4.3-6.1 million/uL
His wbc was abnormal, the normal range 4,300 to 10,800 cells per cubic mm
Appearance of CSF should be clear & colorless
Pressure of CSF should range 90-180mm
Protein was lost
Glucose in CSF should range 50-80mg/100mL
WBC in CSF should range 0-5 per cubic mm
Gram stain findings are abnormal, there should be no organism or virus found in CSF samples
2. What do the temperature, blood count, and cough suggest? Signs of infection in the body.
3. What does the stiffness of the neck suggest? With the fever and abnormal blood work, signs of meningitis.
4. Where is a lumbar puncture normally done? Lumbar punctures (spinal taps) are performed in your lower back, in the lumbar region;a needle is inserted between two lumbar bones (vertebrae) to remove a sample of CSF. Why is it done there? It is done there to diagnose certain diseases of the brain and spinal cord.

5. Where is CSF produced? CSF is produced from arterial blood by the choroid plexuses of the lateral and forth ventricles by a combined process of diffusion, pinocytosis and active transfer; a small amount is also produced by ependymal cells also. (Retrieved from

6. Outline the circulation of CSF from the ventricles to the superior sagittal sinus. There are two ventricles deep within the cerebral hemispheres called the lateral ventricles. They both connect with the third ventricle through a separate opening called the foramen of Monro. The third ventricle connects with the fourth ventricle through a long narrow tube called the aqueduct of Sylvius. From the fourth ventricle, CSF flows into the subarachnoid space where it bathes and cushions the brain. CSF is recycled

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Lumbar Puncture And Third Ventricle. (April 7, 2021). Retrieved from