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Afghanistan, often called the crossroads of Central Asia, has had a turbulent history. Through the ages, Afghanistan has been occupied by many forces. A separate Afghan nation came into existence in 1746 as the Durrani Empire, but control was ceded to the United Kingdom until King Amanullah acceded to throne in 1919. Since then, the country has known many governments and several civil wars.

The ruler of Afghanistan belonged to the Abdali tribal group, whose name was changed to Dorrani on the accession of Ahmad Shah. They belonged either to the Saddozay segment of the Popalzay clan or to the Mohammadzay segment of the Barakzay clan. The Mohammadzay furnished the Saddozay kings frequently with top counselors, who served occasionally as regents, identified with the epithet Mohammadzay.

The last period of stability in Afghanistan lay between 1933 and 1973, when the country was under the rule of King Zahir Shah. Violence was limited and the country became the main overland route between Australia and London for travellers. However, in 1973, Zahirs brother-in-law, Sardar Mohammed Daoud launched a bloodless coup. Daoud and his entire family was murdered in 1978 when the communist Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan lauched a coup and took over the government.

Opposition against the new Communist government was immense, and with the government in danger of collapse, the Soviet Union invaded on December 24, 1979. Faced with mounting international pressure and losses of approximately 15,000 Soviet soldiers as a result of mujahadeen opposition trained by the United States, Pakistan, and other foreign governments, the Soviets withdrew ten years later in 1989.

Fighting subsequently continued among the various mujahidin factions, giving rise to a state of warlordism that eventually spawned the Taliban. Backed by foreign sponsors, the Taliban developed as a political force and eventually seized power. The Taliban were able to capture 90% of the country, aside from Northern Alliance strongholds primarily in the northeast. The Taliban sought to impose an extreme interpretation

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Last Period Of Stability And Rule Of King Zahir Shah. (April 2, 2021). Retrieved from https://www.freeessays.education/last-period-of-stability-and-rule-of-king-zahir-shah-essay/