Philosophers have forever been concerned with political and social matters. Not only have
they asked how politics work but mainly, how they should work. These philosophers have
been concerned with the nature and justification of political obligation and authority
and the goals of political action. Although their doctrines have differentiated, and
numerous have been utopian in concept, they have all shared the same ideas and
convictions that it is the political philosophers duty to distinguish between what is
and what ought to be, between existing political institutions and potentially more humane
institutions. Throughout the centuries, philosophers have debated over the moral issues
involved in the search for the ideal society. Three influential philosophers in this
field have been Plato, John Locke and Karl Marx. Their philosophies and utopian states
have continually influence political actions and thoughts throughout the ages.
One of the most powerful thinkers in history was Plato. As Socrates young pupil, he was
the founder of the Academy and many philosophical theories and dialogues. His most
important work was in political and social philosophy; namely in his most famous book
simply called Republic. In this book, Plato was concerned with the question of justice
and therefore with the questions what is a just state? and who is a just individual?
According to Plato, the ideal state was composed of three classes: the workers and the
artisans, the soldiers and the rulers. The rulers consisted of men who had reached their
maximum educational potential and were complete and enlightened in virtues of reality,
truth and goodness. The spectacle of his day brought Plato to the conclusion that only
philosophers were fit to rule since they possessed all the necessary knowledge and
wisdom. Plato named these rulers philosopher-kings. In the Republic, Platos ideal
educational system was structured primarily to produce philosopher-kings. In its simplest
form, Plato believed that the just state is one in which each class performs its own
function well without infringing on the activities of the other classes. He believed that
if the philosopher-kings helped train the military who, in return, would control natural
unruly peasants, the Republic would be a sort of utopian state; the ideal society of
which the world was in search. Although Platos ideal society influence many
philosophers and many developed numerous ideas from Republic, it cannot be regarded as a
perfect idea. Many flaws are entwined within Platos philosophy such as the rights of
lower class citizens and the idea that asserts the supremacy of the state over the
individual. Plato believed that philosophers were, indeed, superior to all others making
the majority of citizens in a society outcasts and left with an impediment. Following
Plato, philosophers continued to dream up their concepts of the ideal society. One of
the most prominent political philosophers, especially in North America, would be John
John Locke, to this day, has had a great influence on political systems around the world,
namely the United States of America. His theory of the ideal society, developed in his
bookTwo Treatises on Government established a distinction between what he called the
state of nature and the political state. By the state of nature Locke meant a moral

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Justification Of Political Obligation And Political Philosophers Duty. (April 3, 2021). Retrieved from