Type Two Diabetes
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Type two diabetes, also know as adult-onset or no insulin-dependent diabetes, is a condition that lowers the bodyÐ²Ð‚™s ability to metabolize glucose, the bodyÐ²Ð‚™s main source of energy(Ð²Ð‚ÑšDiabetesÐ²Ð‚Ñœ Mayoclinic). A condition that makes up 70-80% of those with diabetes. This disease usually develops gradually after the age of forty, producing milder symptoms than then type one diabetes(Butler, Lewis and Shier 297). Now close to 18 million citizens have the disease, that is over 6% of all Americans. No longer a petty treat, type two diabetes is a new enemy to people that needs to be faced(Bren).
Diabetes occurs when the body does not produce enough insulin. Thus a feedback system begins to regulate the body. A feedback system consists of a stimulus, or problem. Receptors, sensors that identify the problem. A control center, the place in the body where something can be done to solve the problem and how that part of the body reacts to the problem. A set point, the point at which the body is stable and is to be returned to. Effectors, what the control center uses to fix the problem, and a response, the actual reaction the body has once the effectors begin to work. With this particular feedback system, the stimulus is a rise in blood glucose and the receptors are beta cells, which secrete the hormone insulin, that detect a rise in blood glucose. The control center is the beta cells and that they secrete insulin while the set point of this system is a blood glucose level of 70-100mg per 100mL of blood. The effectors are insulin that promote movement of glucose into certain cells and that stimulate formation of glycogen that inhibits conversion of noncarbohydrates from glucose. The response being a blood glucose dropping towards the set point. Unfortunately, diabetes occurs when there is a failure in this system(Butler, Lewis and Shier 297).
Ð²Ð‚ÑšOver time, having too much glucose in your blood can damage your eyes, kidneys and nervesÐ²Ð‚Ñœ(Ð²Ð‚ÑšDiabetesÐ²Ð‚Ñœ Medline plus). Diabetic eye problems, or diabetic retinopathy, is the cause for most blindness of the blindness in U.S. adults. Diabetic retinopathy happens when diabetes damages the tiny blood vessels inside your retina, the light sensitive tissue in the back of an eye. Diabetic kidney problems, or diabetic nephropathy, damages blood vessels that remove waste from the kidneys. Hurting these Ð²Ð‚ÑšfiltersÐ²Ð‚Ñœ will cause a build up of waste and fluids in the kidneys. With type two diabetes there also comes diabetic neuropathy, diabetic nerve problems. Diabetic neuropathy occurs when the covering of nerves or the blood vessels that bring oxygen to nerves are damaged by high blood glucose levels. Damaged nerves may stop sending impulses or send impulses slowly or at the wrong times(Ð²Ð‚ÑšDiabetesÐ²Ð‚Ñœ Medline plus).
Symptoms of type two diabetes seem harmless at first, many never notice the numerous signs. The first symptom is an increase in thirst and urinating more frequently. The higher levels of sugar in the bloodstream, the more fluid that is being pulled from the tissues thus creating more an increase in thirst. As a result there is a higher amount of urinations throughout the day. The second most common symptom is extreme hunger which comes from not having enough insulin to move sugar into the cells, creating a lack of energy in the muscles and organs in the body, allowing hunger to stay far after eating. Another sign of diabetes is weight loss despite the constant over eating to fill the constant hunger a person will still lose weight. Without the sugar storage the fat cells in the muscles will simply deplete. Fatigue may be induced when there is a lack of sugar in the cells of the body creating tiredness and irritability. White blood sugar levels are high fluid may be pulled from tissues in the body, including the lenses in the eyes, creating blurred vision and an inability to focus. Finally type two diabetes will affect the bodyÐ²Ð‚™s ability to heal soars and cause frequent infections(Ð²Ð‚ÑšDiabetesÐ²Ð‚Ñœ Mayoclinic).
Type two diabetes may be prevented by bettering ones lifestyle. Eating healthier foods with less calories and fats is a great way the slow diabetes. Along with eating more fruits vegetables and whole grains. Becoming more physically active is another way to try and fend off diabetes. Even just thirty minutes a day can be helpful. Last but not least is shedding any extra weight. Which would largely be attainable if the first two methods are met(Ð²Ð‚ÑšDiabetesÐ²Ð‚Ñœ Mayoclinic).
When it comes to developing type two diabetes, there are many risk factors involved, some more baffling then others. A primary risk factor to type two diabetes is being overweight. The more fat cells a person has the more likely a person will begin to resist insulin. The less active a person is, the more prone to the disease there are. When a person uses energy, they are not only burning fat but also allowing their body to become more susceptible to insulin. The risk of contracting diabetes also increases when a relative already has the disease. Although if a parent o sibling has diabetes that does not necessarily mean that the son/daughter/sibling also has diabetes. Just that there is a higher risk. The least understood risk factor involved is a persons race. Unknowingly to scientists and researchers there is diabetes more often time found in African Americans, Hispanics, native Americans and Asian Americans. The risk of type two diabetes also increases with age, especially after the age of forty-five. This is most likely caused by the lack of exercise, bone mass loss and deterioration of muscle tissue. Prediabetes is where the blood sugar level is high but not high enough to be classified as type two diabetes. Prediabetes will develop into diabetes if gone unchecked and untreated(Ð²Ð‚ÑšDiabetesÐ²Ð‚Ñœ Mayoclinc).
Type two diabetes should be taken seriously and those who are experiencing symptoms should contact a physician immediately. Especially if experiencing extreme weight gain while in an inactive state. A person can be screened for diabetes using routine blood work. Recommending check-ups every few months along with full examinations every year. Those who contract diabetes should also make yearly eye doctor appointments in order to find any diabetic retinopathy, diabetic eye