Indoor Positioning System Paper
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 Indoor Positioning SystemProf. Ashish Harsola, Prateek P. Gupta, Shradha Katakdhond, Akshay Tamboli, Chaitanya Pokhrankar  Fr. C. Rodrigues Institute of Technology, Vashi, Navi Mumbai. [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], [email protected]— This paper proposes an unobtrusive Indoor Positioning System with a user friendly interface, which can be deployed without significant modifications to the operating environment and overhead costs. The objective of the aforementioned system is to track the location of objects of interest in an indoor environment and to then use this data for providing location specific services in mall-stores, warehouses, medical institutions and military applications thereby greatly enhancing productivity and user experience.Index Terms—Geofencing, Indoor , Navigation, Positioning. INTRODUCTION The core idea behind this project, Smart Cart using IPS, is the ubiquitous Indoor Positioning System. Indoor Positioning System (IPS) is a system for acquiring the location and if possible, the position of the objects of interest. This can be implemented using a Smart and Aware Environment. IPS is an up and coming concept and various entities are adopting various different paths towards implementing it. The end result remains that the location of the objects of interest are logged at desired frequency, and this information may then be used and processed for pursuing any number of varied objectives. IPS can be deployed to improve the Shopping experience of the present day shopper by eliminating queues, offering schemes tailor made to suit each customer individually, efficient utilization of time, preventing bottlenecks even with increase in footfalls, etc the list is seemingly endless. Here we propose to implement the Indoor Positioning System using a Dead Reckoning System, Bluetooth technology and RFID technology, wherein the shopping trolleys will be outfitted with Bluetooth transceivers which in conjunction with Optical IR sensors and the Arduino Mega microcontroller map the location of the shopping trolley on a virtual canvas. For facilitating billing and other essential background logistics, RFID technology and Android platform will be used. Hardware usedOptical wheel encoderAn IR Optical sensor is employed to count the number of ticks turned by the wheel during rotation. As the total number of ticks is fixed for one wheel revolution, by using this tick count, the distance traversed by the bot can be calculated which can then be manipulated to extract the Cartesian coordinates of the bot. This tick count also enables the bot to make 90 degree turns, which is equivalent to half the total number of ticks turned by the wheel in one revolution.Bluetooth[pic 1]Fig.2 Bluetooth Mate Silver RN-42
The RN42 is a small form factor, low power, highly economic Bluetooth radio for OEM’s adding wireless capability to their products. The RN42 supports multiple interface protocols, is simple to design in and fully certified, making it a complete embedded Bluetooth solution. The RN 42 is functionally compatible with RN 41. With its high performance on chip antenna and support for Bluetooth® Enhanced Data Rate (EDR), the RN42 delivers up to 3 Mbps data rate for distances to 20M. The RN-42 also comes in a package with no antenna (RN-42-N). Useful when the application requires an external antenna, the RN-42-N is shorter in length and has RF pads to route the antenna signal.RFID Reader and Tag[pic 2]Fig.3 RFID Reader and cards used in projectRFID technology is based on the transfer of data by means of electromagnetic fields. Information about an object is stored on a data carrier, known as a transponder or tag, which is attached to the object. This transponder consists of an antenna and a chip containing the individual object data. RFID essentially performs the same tasks as the widespread barcode or magnetic strip, but offers several advantages as a successor technology such as, no direct line of sight required, read/write functionality, different memory sizes / technologies available, security features available, multiple tags can be read simultaneously, works in harsh environment etc. RFID can be classified on the basis of two categories. Firstly, based on the types of the transponder and secondly based on the frequency of operation. There are basically three types of RFID transponders, active, passive and battery assisted passive RFID tag. The RFID operates in four frequency ranges namely LF (125 KHz), HF (13.56 MHz), UHF (860-950 MHz), and Microwave (GHz). The range of reading the tag increases with the increase in the frequency. Also, multiple tags can be read at ultra high frequency. The cost of UHF transponders is very high compared to LF transponders. Depending upon the application, the type of RFID transponder and frequency of operation is chosen. The purpose of using RFID tags in this project is to facilitate instant billing and elimination of queues which will greatly enhance the user shopping experience.Arduino Mega 2560[pic 3]Fig.4 Arduino Mega 2560The Arduino Mega 2560 is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega2560 (datasheet). It has 54 digital input/output pins (of which 15 can be used as PWM outputs), 16 analog inputs, 4 UARTs (hardware serial ports), a 16 MHz crystal oscillator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button. It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started. The Mega2560 differs from all preceding boards in that it does not use the FTDI USB-to-serial driver chip. Instead, it features the ATmega16U2 programmed as a USB-to-serial converter.Dual DC Motor driver This 18V compatible 20A capable Dual DC motor driver is ideal for application where two motors require up to 20 Amperes of current during startup and during normal operations. It comes with a simple TTL/CMOS based interface that can connect directly to the IOs of an MCU. It has a braking feature that can guarantee immediate halt on the shaft of motors in most high power applications and also includes protection circuitry to avoid any electrical fluctuations affecting the normal operation of an MCU.