Analyzing Counseling Theories
Analyzing Counseling TheoriesNo NameWalden UniversityAnalyzing Counseling Theories- Instructions Theory 1: Feminist TheoryTheory 2: Transpersonal TheoryBackground Theory: Who? When? Evolved in the 1960’s and into 1970’sBetty Freidan most early vocalistNotable for changes in understanding human development are Carol Gilligan, Jean Baker Miller, Ellyn Kaschak and Sandra BemIntroduced in late 1960’sDeveloped by psychologists such as Abraham Maslow and Victor FranklEarly work roots from William James and Carl JungHuman NatureFor example: Positive view of human beings; all behavior is learned; People have freedom to choose etc.Traditional theories of human nature & development are not totally applicableImportant to understand that men & women socialize differentlyGender-roles take place across a life span and are multifacetedMen & Women should not be limited or will have lifelong consequencesConsciousness is always evolvingHealthy development is labeled as changes are made from inner to outer selfAs client’s progress to next stage previous stage is resolvedPersonal functioning (PF) occurs when one is fully competent & has healthy egoPF is controlled by ego and higher than pre-personalTranspersonal functioning is most idealMajor Constructs: As listed in your chapters and essentially what the theory will focus on for effective change. For example, a PC Counselor will attend to empathy and congruence etc.Focus is on individual and social changeResponse in a client is not dysfunctional but response of copingEnvironmental factors affect pathology therefore need to be changed or change to take place in the clientCounselors help clients change psychologically and internally but also encourage participation in political groups for social changeCounselors are committed to founding of egalitarian relationshipsClients are viewed as equal partnersCounselors respect voice of women and ways of knowingCounselors help clients test androcentric normsThe voice of women and their experiences are diverse and shaped by other identitiesCounselors see all types of oppressionEveryone is ultimately and fundamentally a part of the wholeCounseling seeks integration of spiritual and psychological developmentMaintains different philosophical viewpoint; consists of 4 paradigmsReductionisticHumanisticDualisticMonasticConsiders expanded views on human nature to include behaviorism, humanism, Jungian analysis and psychoanalysisViewed as eclectic and encompassing due to incorporated viewpointsApplications: Which Population is this theory used with? Age groups and specific issues depression, PTSD, anxiety, developmental issues, substance abuse etc. This information can be found in the overview sectionGeared towards female populationEvolved from women with gender-based issuesSexual assaultSexual harassmentDomestic ViolenceEating disordersConfronts sexismWorks with individuals, families and couplesWorks with other identity issues such as race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, nationality, ability & generational statusCounseling is highly personalEffective with mental disorders diagnosed among womenResolves interpersonal conflictFosters higher human developmentThe client finds true healthiness when everyday functioning levels have occurred Dimensions include content, process & contextAnxietyDepressionAddictionsPhobiasBehavioral issuesWorksEvaluations: What does the research indicate?  Studies do show encouraging resultsValidity of effectiveness however still presents challengesComparisons show distinct modalityNarrative approach helpful to treat anorexiaFurther research needed to see effectiveness in traditional empirical methods as well as qualitative techniquesNot as identified as other traditional theories and adequate training is difficult to obtainStudies that examined techniques of the theory are aged and sparseAll 3 approaches to the theory shared firm groundings as compared to other theoriesTranspersonal theories were more accepting of other theoriesMore accepting of client’s spiritual issuesCurrent research focuses more on transpersonal counseling rather than conceptsPart II: Reflections: Target Population        Active duty service men and women often experience circumstances and situations unlike other individuals around them; these individuals are often on call twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week. Soldiers can be deployed on average of twelve months at a time, they participate in strenuous field activities and exercises, they generally spend two to three years at one base before moving to the next and they will average anywhere from two to six years on active duty status. To be a soldier in the U.S. Army means being a part of the strongest fighting forces in the world and it often leads to inability to maintain a lot of the typical relationships and such that would take place in a civilian world. Because of these circumstances and so much more it is easy for things such as substance abuse and alcoholism to be a big problem. For this assignment I consider the following person:Age: 35-year-oldGender: Male Specific Issue: Alcohol addictionTheory ChoiceThe ability for an individual to move back and forth throughout different stages of consciousness, and learn to exist forever in one specific state, transpersonal theory uses influences that are positive rather than those that are negative within the human psyche to model understanding of human development (Carrier & Mitchell, 2016). Transpersonal theory studies human growth and development and it will encourage a person to see their innermost capabilities; for a person that is healthy, the stages of development can produce the highest of human qualities. For a person who lacks healthy ego development, such as an alcoholic, their experiences can lead to psychosis so transpersonal theory can help to differentiate between the conditions (Carrier & Mitchell, 2016). Alcoholism does not contain gray areas, a person is either an alcoholic or not; behavioral issues, personality conflicts and family issues can all be underlying symptoms ( Generally consumed so an individual can try to forget about a terrifying event or disguise triggers of trauma, they often binge drink which can cause rewiring of the brain. It will then build the tolerance an individual has and over time increase dependency; research also shows causes of alcoholism are biological, physiological and hereditary ( Other than offering a unique perspective on human development, transpersonal theory emphasizes spiritual aspects of human functioning (Carrier & Mitchell, 2016). Because it incorporates defining processes such as biological, physiological and even social aspects of human functioning, transpersonal theory can be used as a framework for treating alcoholism.

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