The Constitution Framed by Delegates with Self-Interest
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It is interesting to look at the people in high-ranking government offices and see that they are the people who came from a high-class family and went to some of the best schools in the country. It is so typical to see these aristocrats in government that it arises many questions to those in a middle wealth class standing. For example, why is there no representation for the common man, how do aristocrats stay so successful in life, or why it has become increasingly difficult for those who work in labor positions to make a substantial living. These questions can be answered by looking at where it all began. Our nation was slowly crippling under the articles of confederation and the call for the United States Constitution was being heard. After many painstaking assemblies for its creation and arguments over clauses, the Constitution was finally ratified with a majority vote in 1789 as the supreme law of the land. When framing the United States Constitution, the delegates were looking out for their own aristocratic benefits in order to solve the economic problems that proved the Articles of Confederation to be inadequate.

Under the Articles of Confederation the economy was unable to flourish because there was an ineffective regulation on trade and commerce, no money to produce revenue, and debt. The articles were not allowed to regulate foreign and interstate commerce and it was difficult to find trading partners when other countries could not respect us because of inflation and debts owed to them. What ever traces of trade that was going on was most likely attacked by the Barbary pirates. Many businesses in the industry were losing profit and even failing. Another problem that hurt the economy was the debt to creditors and foreign countries. The only way to solve the problems of money liability was to tax the people. However, the Articles did not give the government the power to issue federal taxes without a unanimous vote, which was very difficult to establish (Farrand 45). Therefore the money owed to Britain from the revolutionary war or to the Barbary pirates to pay them not to attack our ships was not able to be paid. Another power the government did not have was to establish a national bank to issue standard paper money and because of this, paper currency was issued by the states. This depreciated money values, made in difficult to exchange money through out the country, and caused many fluctuations and inflations in currency. This money system was unstable and made it very difficult for money investors to protect their property or be repaid money they loaned to the government. Finally, land speculators were not receiving any business because the government could not put together an army to protect western lands. Thus, citizens were hesitant to move out west. The United States was not a united country at all, only a loose confederation with a failing economy. The leading businesses in all types of industries were failing due to the lack of a sound economy (The Constitution).

The leaders of our country knew something had to be done if we were to ever be a successful country that could flourish. These leaders were obviously scholarly gentleman who had a financial standing in society, in other words aristocrats. They called a convention in Philadelphia where the constitution was created in order to change the condition of the governmental finances. During the meetings the delegates were able to restore order, strengthen public credit, allow the government to make commercial treaties and agreements, provide protection so that trade can happen, and handle Indian affairs that would allow peace in the western lands. The major change to the government was the strong central government with three branches that was able to create an army, regulate all trade, issue paper money, and collect taxes. A way to keep a branch from becoming to powerful was the checks and balances, which was key for public approval to stay away from a government that they just fought a revolution with (Farrand 47). Also, the veto was important power that the president had to stop a law from being passed. Another change made was the Fifth Amendment, which said that the government could not take land without compensation or deprive someone from his or her (but mostly his in that time period) right to property. Another important change to the constitution was the National Bank. This held and issued all federal money. These changes allowed commerce to flourish, collected money that was needed for debt, protected frontiersmen, encouraged expansion, and protected private property holders and encourage others to invest in the country. They were all changes that the delegates wanted in order to benefit themselves (Goz).

The changes that were made to the government show significance because they correlate to how the delegates were able to benefit from them. Charles Beard, a proponent of this argument, was able to survey the delegates at the convention by looking at the facts that show that they changed the government to their own liking (Goz). These men were aristocrats who were concerned with their businesses, property, or private or public securities.

These businesses included, traders, financiers and manufacturers who were suffering under the Articles of Confederation and found it imperative to reconstruct them. Through the Articles there was not any development on their investments because they could not receive interest on their loans or continue to speculate western frontiers. Traders were obstructed by the commerce of local towns and the currency that was being currently used was a mess. In addition, money was depreciated, collection on taxes was irregular and uncertain, and individual states were ratifying against the articles (Commager). It was dangerous to the peace and welfare of the country and there was no unification.

In Beards opinion the delegates at the convention had the most political experience and logic because they were trained in law, finance, administration, and political philosophy. In his survey, he found that over forty delegates had large sums of money invested in security and many of their names appeared on the treasury record such as George Washington, C.C. Pinkney, and Roger Sherman. There were fourteen members who invested in land speculation, eleven in mercantile, manufacturing, and shipping lines, and fifteen in slaves. It is also important to note that none of the changes in government improved the wealth or living from those of the farming or mechanic classes and they were not represented at the convention. In the surveys done by many historians, they have seen that the issues that are voted on connect to the voting of “yes or no” by the delegates. Specifically, a delegates vote depends purely on the way that it would benefit his personal economic interest to maximize satisfaction. Therefore clauses were

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