Smelter In Trinidad
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Trinidad was first colonized by the Spanish; the islands came under British control in the early 19th century. The islands sugar industry was hurt by the emancipation of the slaves in 1834. Manpower was replaced with the importation of contract laborers from India between 1845 and 1917, which boosted sugar production as well as the cocoa industry. The discovery of oil on Trinidad in 1910 added another important export. Independence was attained in 1962. The country is one of the most prosperous in the Caribbean thanks largely to petroleum and natural gas production and processing. The main Caribbean producer of oil and gas, has earned a reputation as an excellent investment site for international businesses. The economy benefits from a growing trade surplus. Economic growth in 2006 reached 12.6% as prices for oil, petrochemicals, and liquefied natural gas remained high, and foreign direct investment continued to grow to support expanded capacity in the energy sector. The gas and oil exploration is currently the driving force of the economy. The Government of Trinidad and Tobago has decided to open two smelter plants using Liquefied Natural Gas at a subsidized price.
The roads that wander through the southwestern peninsula of Trinidad pass small fishing villages, mangrove swamps, and coconut plantations skirt herds of buffalypso and reveal sheltered beach coves. In February 2006, Alcoa signed an agreement in principle with the Trinidad and Tobago Government to build a 341,000 metric-tons-per-year aluminum smelter and related facilities in the Chatham area. This construction plans to threaten and fundamentally alter their gentle landscape. There has been sparked criticism from local residents and environmentalists.
The other plant, Alutrint, is a partnership between the locally-based National Energy Corporation (NEC) and the Sural Group of Venezuela. It would be 60 percent owned by the government with the Venezuelan group controlling the remaining 40 percent. It would produce 125,000 metric tons of aluminum annually. The complex will occupy about 100 hectares at the Union Industrial Estate in La Brea.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The aim of this study is to:
show the environmental effects of the aluminum smelters,
The effects of the depletion of natural resources
The effects of the people in these communities. How they will be affected, their poverty/unemployment levels and their feelings about this proposed development.
To discuss reasons why Alcoa chose Trinidad and Tobago to build a smelter plant and why the government is giving the go-ahead to them.
To understand the benefits and drawbacks of smelters operating in Trinidad.
APPROACH TO THE STUDY
This study was carried out by doing research via the Internet and the World wide web..
Visiting the NALIS Library and using their necessary resources, for example, files, newspaper clippings, articles and so on.
Speaking to personnel from the Environmental Management Authority (EMA).
Face-to-face contact. This was done by interviewing residents from La Brea area orally.
The questionnaire method: Twenty residents were given questionnaires and asked to complete.
Telephone enquires: Calls were made to Ms Sherriff Mohammed, a Chatham resident and Mr Norris Deonarine, President of the National Foodcrop Farmers Association.
The overall goal of this project is to undertake an in-depth assessment of Caribbean sustainability processes and to develop and advocate strategies for sustainable development which are rooted in the broad-based participation by civil society institutions in decision making. Additionally, the project was designed to provide policy advice, action plans and policy documents in environmental, economic and social matters of critical importance to Caribbean Society. The core information base to inform the achievement of the objectives of the project was developed, as designed, through the conduct of a substantive field survey of civil society organisations in the twelve (12) countries of the Caricom region. The survey sought to generate information on the limitations and constraints to the effective operations of civil society organisations, their needs for capacity building (training, financing, technical assistance etc.) as well as their perspectives on their participatory role in sustainable development processes. Policy studies and training workshops have been undertaken for the basis of the survey findings. Based Enhanced Livelihood Strategies
What sustainable development programs are planned for Trinidad and Tobago?
Alcoa will consult widely to help Trinidad and Tobago achieve sustainable development through balancing the economic, social, and environmental aspects of the project.
In SÐ³o LuÐ½s, Brazil, Alcoas Aluminum smelter operates side-by-side with an environmental park. The park sits on 1,800 hectares of mangroves, swamps, and woodlands. Its a natural habitat where dozens of birds, reptiles, mammals, and endangered species thrive. The park has helped to re-establish fish and wildlife in the area, both of which were nearly depleted before the parks creation. Today, the park is an important source of food and income for many SÐ³o LuÐ½s residents.
Safe and environmentally responsible management of all the materials that is used and produce is critically important to Alcoa. Sodium aluminium fluoride is an essential raw material in the smelting process, and the process does generate fluoride emissions. For these economic and environmental reasons–as well as for their aspiration to be the best company in the world–Alcoa places heavy emphasis on effectively recovering and managing fluoride emissions well.
Modern smelters like the one that they propose to build in Trinidad and Tobago are designed to capture and recycle more than 98% of all fluoride emissions.
Typically, Alcoa-managed smelters around the world outperform the stringent fluoride emission management limits imposed on them by regulatory agencies, such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Ambient air quality will be monitored at the smelters boundaries and publicly reported. The monitoring itself will also be open