Defense Mechanism Used by Heathcliff in “wuthering Heights”
Defense mechanism used by Heathcliff in “Wuthering Heights”AbstractThis research explores the defense mechanism used by the character Heathcliff in Wuthering Heights. He takes revenge from many characters of the novel for his bitter past. Some characters are culprit but some innocent also get punished. An analysis is done using Defense mechanism of Freud’s psychoanalysis theory to analyse different incidents when Heathcliff escapes the situation after crime. Heathcliff is not initially wicked but society ridiculing him for his social status and dark skin, and his love, Catherine leaving him for materialistic gains make him detrimental. This psychoanalysis can be applied on any man from any society.Introduction:This research focuses on different aspects of Heathcliff, main protagonist who behaves as antagonist in the novel “Wuthering Heights” by Emily Bronte. Eternal love mingled with everlasting hatred when it lost its destination in the novel. A gipsy young boy Heathcliff is brought to the Wuthering Heights by the owner of the place, Mr. Earnshaw. His children, Catherine and Hindley ridicule the new dweller. Mr. Earnshaw showers his kindness over the Heathcliff and prefers him over his own son. Jealousy and pride in Hindley results in mischievous behavior with Heathcliff. Finally, Mr. Earnshaw sends Hindley away to school to keep environment safe for Heathcliff.
Mr. Earnshaw dies after severe illness. Hindley returns to Wuthering Heights with his wife Frances to attend his father’s funeral. Afterwards, Hindley takes incharge of everything at the place but does not show any positive concern to any of the residents of the place. He moves old servants Joseph and Nelly to the back-kitchen, who enjoyed their influential status during Mr. Earnshaw’s life. He also forbids Heathcliff from getting educated. He stays aloof from his sister, Catherine too. Catherine and Heathcliff find refuge in each other’s company and live as “savages”, skipping Church and education, spending their time in playing in moors.While playing, one day both Catherine and Heathcliff visit Thrushcross Grange where Lintons live. They tease young Lintons but their dog, Skulker bites Catherine on ankle. Mr. and Mrs. Linton take her in their home while hating the presence of Heathcliff. Heathcliff returns to Wuthering Heights and informs Nelly about the incident. Catherine stays with Lintons for five weeks until she recovers. She learns good manners from Mrs. Linton. On her return to Wuthering Heights, she mocks Heathcliff and compares him with good mannered Edgar (son of Linton). This behavior from the dearest friend hurts Heathcliff. Further Mr. and Mrs. Linton scold Hindley for being indifferent to his sister. They also show their disapproval for Heathcliff’s presence around. Heathcliff grows while keeping nourished by Hindley’s hatred and mistreatment. Hindley finds refuge in drinking when his wife dies after giving birth to a baby boy, Hareton.