Essay title: Gender Difference
The basal metabolic rate is about 6 percent higher in adolescent boys than girls and increases to about 10 per cent higher after puberty. Women tend to convert more food into fat, while men convert more into muscle and expendable circulating energy reserves. At age eighteen, men (on average) have about 50 percent more muscle mass than women in the upper body, 10 to 15 percent more in the lower. Men, on average, have denser, stronger bones, tendons, and ligaments. This allows for heavier work.
Men dissipate heat faster than women through their sweat glands. Women have a greater insulation and energy reserves stored in subcutaneous fat, withstanding cold better, and performing better in activities requiring extraordinary endurance. Sex differences in endurance events are less significant than for sprinting events.
Men typically have larger tracheae and branching bronchi, with about 30 percent greater lung volume per body mass. They have larger hearts, 10 percent higher red blood cell count, higher hemoglobin, hence greater oxygen-carrying capacity. They also have higher circulating clotting factors (vitamin K, prothrombin and platelets). These differences lead to faster healing of wounds and higher peripheral pain tolerance.
Women typically have more white blood cells (stored and circulating), more granulocytes and B and T lymphocytes. Additionally, they produce more antibodies at a faster rate than males. Hence they develop fewer infectious diseases and succumb for shorter periods. Ethologists argue that females, interacting with other females and multiple offspring in social groups, have experienced such traits as a selective advantage.
Sex difference in Brain structure and Cognitive processes
Males possess more tightly packed and more numerous nerve cells (neurons) than females. Females tend to have more neuropil, the fibular tissue that fills the space between nerve cell bodies and contains mainly nerve cell processes (synapses, dendrites and axons) that enable neurons to communicate with numerous other nerve cells. Women are more prone to dementing illnesses than are men. The womans functional loss may be greater because the cells lost are more densely connected with other neurons. It has been shown that a region of the hypothalamus is visibly larger in male rats than in females and that this size difference is under hormonal control. On average, men perform better than women at certain spatial tasks. In particular, men seem to have an advantage in tests that require the subject to imagine rotating an object or manipulating it in some other way. They also outperform women in mathematical reasoning tests and in navigating their way through a route. Further, men exhibit more accuracy in tests of target-directed motor skills–that is, in guiding or intercepting projectiles. Women, on average, excel on tests that measure recall of words and on tests that challenge the person to find words that begin with a specific letter or fulfill some other constraint. They also tend to be better than men at rapidly identifying matching items and performing certain precision manual tasks, such as placing pegs in designated holes on a board. In general, males are better at spatial tasks involving mental rotation.
In general, females have superior verbal skills.
Males are far more likely to pursue math or science careers, but gender differences in math are not consistent across nations or ages.
A number of imaging studies have demonstrated that the brains of males and females show different patterns of activity on various tasks.
Nicotine has been shown to differentially alter mens and womens brain activity patterns so that the differences disappear.
Both estrogen and testosterone have been shown to affect cognitive function.
Training has been shown to bring parity to differences in cognitive performance between the sexes.
Age also alters the differences between men and women.
Role of hormones in Gender Related Behaviour :