Elm Vs Cdt
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Attitude change is presented in the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) with the explanation of two cognitive processes, called the central and peripheral routes. The central route is where the listener carefully examines the material, determining if it has validity, and then letting that material sink in over time. Strong arguments by the speaker, if carefully reflected on, will cause major attitude change in the listener over time, will deter counter-persuasion, and possibly predict future behavior. The peripheral route is a mental shortcut to accept or reject a message without heavy cognitive effort. These shortcuts fall into certain categories–reciprocation, consistency, social proof, liking, authority, and scarcity. Perceived credibility and likeability of the speaker is also big factors.
In Cognitive Dissonance Theory (CDT), people change their attitudes to fit their behaviors. There are three theories that describe this. The first idea is that our selective exposure to certain media can prevent our cognitive dissonance. Second, there is the idea that after a tough decision is made, we need to reassure ourselves that it was the correct decision. The third idea is that minimal incentives to perform a behavior will cause an attitude shift.
These two theories converge on the idea of attitude change in that they both assume that people desire to hold correct attitudes. They also overlap on the idea that we want those attitudes to be consistent with our behavior. The theories differ, however, in the fact that attitude change in ELM is dependent on an outside source, whereas attitude change in CDT can occur from within. ELM discusses how our attitudes can be changed by persuasive material, while CDT describes how our mind deals with the discrepancies between our attitudes and our behaviors.