612- Module 1- D2 + 612 Module 5
612- Module 1- D2 + 612 Module 5
Question: Choose an area of infant development – cognitive, social/emotional, physical, or language – and describe it to the class from birth to 12 months.
At birth, the newborn begins to exercise reflex Movements. The legs and arms also begin to exercise bumpy movements. At three months, an infant is capable of partially following moving objects and even able to briefly hold up the head without being assisted (Morin, 2020). At five months, the infant is in a position to rock on his or her belly and equally use hands to move stuff. The infant begins to reach out and grab objects at this age. At seven months, an infant can reasonably sit alone or when slightly assisted. He/she is also able to make back and forth rock movements using the tummy and back. Attempts for forward movements and pushups can also be witnessed at the age of seven months. At the age of nine months, an infant may begin to understand the “no” language, follow a dropping object using his eyes and stand freely with no support (Brown, Westerveld & Gillon, 2017, p. 71). At 12 months, an infant can either take the first few baby steps, point at an object, and or support himself on objects while attempting to walk.
Brown, M. I., Westerveld, M. F., & Gillon, G. T. (2017). Early storybook reading with babies
and young children: Parents’ opinions and home reading practices. Australasian
Journal of Early Childhood, 42(2), 69–77.
Morin, A. (2020). Developmental Milestones from Birth to Age 1
Question: Discuss adolescent identity development in relation to Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model.
The model lays emphasis on how the environment influences an individual. The subject’s continuous character of reorganization throughout its development occurs at different levels, including the person’s actions, perceptions, activities and interactions with their environment. Thus, development is promoted or negatively affected according to the degree of a person’s interaction with people, as well as by participation and engagement in different activities. In other words, development depends mainly on the stability or relationship between an individual and his environmental factors, which can promote or limit changes (Saleem, Iqbal & Jabeen, 2019, p. 25). For example, human development during adolescence, the proposed model and the concept of development that underlies it, helps in examining how this reciprocal influence takes place between adolescents and their environment. A person who has passed the adolescence stage no longer loses a sense of self is understood as a being with his or her own acquired characteristics (individual, psychological and biological) and with a peculiar way of dealing with life experiences (Houston, 2017, p. 3). It is understood as an active subject that is a product and, at the same time, a producer of its development. This knowledge contributes to overcoming the view of adolescence as a turbulent and unstable period.
Houston, S. (2017). Towards a critical ecology of child development in social work: Aligning
the theories of Bronfenbrenner and Bourdieu. Families, Relationships and Societies,
Saleem, S., Iqbal, S., & Jabeen, A. (2019). Assessing identity in adolescence: A psychometric
study. FWU Journal of Social Sciences, 13(2), 25-35.
Question: Describe some possible causes of developmental delays in infants.
Biologicals delay in development is related to prematurity, lack of oxygen in the brain, meningitis among others. Other causes include genetic malformations, syndromes, and metabolism errors in biological processes. A physical delay can be a symptom of a major problem, such as spina bifida or autism (Houston, 2017, p. 57). It may also mean, simply, that a child needs a few more weeks or months to reach the optimal growth expectation. For this reason, it is always good for parents and teachers to be aware if the delay is really specific or if it is just a temporary difficulty in having certain skills at the same time with others (Saleem, Iqbal & Jabeen, 2019, p. 32). Premature children may also have difficulty manifesting the first signs of development. Worse still, children who have special genetic conditions such as Down’s Syndrome may stagnate in normal growth.
Houston, S. (2017). Towards a critical ecology of child development in social
Aligning the theories of Bronfenbrenner and Bourdieu. Families,
Societies, 6(1), 53-69.
Saleem, S., Iqbal, S., & Jabeen, A. (2019). Assessing identity in adolescence: A
psychometric study. FWU Journal of Social Sciences, 13(2), 25-35.
Question: Choose a disorder that typically manifests itself during infancy and outline several symptoms of the disorder that parents or practitioners may notice within the first few years of life.
Childhood asthma has the same symptoms as adult asthma, only that they are often aggravated due to the smaller caliber of the children’s airways. Among the most common symptoms of childhood asthma are:
Frequent cough (Zahran, Bailey, Damon, Garbe & Breysse, 2018, p. 149)
Wheezing and wheezing in the chest
Shortness of breath
Constant fatigue (Petsky, Li & Chang, 2017, p. 3)
Chest pain, especially in younger children.
Often the child may find it difficult to keep up with friends during play and exercise.
Petsky, H. L., Li, A., & Chang, A. B. (2017). Tailored interventions based on sputum
eosinophils versus clinical symptoms for asthma in children and adults. Cochrane
database of systematic reviews, (8).
signs: asthma in children—United States, 2001–2016. Morbidity and Mortality
Weekly Report, 67(5), 149.
Question: -Choose a disorder their either typically manifests itself in adolescence, or becomes more problematic in adolescence, and outline the diagnostic criteria for the class using examples.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adolescents leads to the demand for drugs. For example, since adolescence is a period of complex changes such as hormonal and psychological, it is noted that individuals with comorbidities associated with ADHD are more likely to use drugs in adulthood (Ríos-Hernández et al., 2017). The latter is main criteria used for diagnosing ADHD, a process that begins in previous periods of development.
More than five signs and symptoms of ADHD should be investigated
Before 12 years, more symptoms are supposed to have been diagnosed (Sayal, Prasad, Daley, Ford & Coghill, 2018, p. 177)
Several symptoms of ADHD, for example trouble in multitasking and impulsiveness
There must be vivid signs that the ADHD symptoms grossly interfere with the overall wellbeing of an adolescent, for example when the patient becomes excessively restless.
M. (2017). The Mediterranean diet and ADHD in children and
adolescents. Pediatrics, 139(2), e20162027.
young people: prevalence, care pathways, and service provision. The Lancet
Psychiatry, 5(2), 175-186.