Some Basic Concepts of Demographic Analyis
Some Basic Concepts of Demographic Analyis
Some Basic Concepts of Demographic Analyis
1. Observation
Demographic facts and figures are assembled on. the basis of. the- observation of individuals and groups. Observations are conducted with naked eye -on the course of events which are opened. to conflicting influences acting concurrently. Observation can be of different types.

Human . beings are theĐ˛Đ‚â„˘ objects of- observation. On whom controlled experiment is not possible as in physical sciences. The sense in which experiment is -possible in demographic study is that different populations can be studied at the same time and the same population Đ˛Đ‚?can be studied at different times. Observation requires sufficient skill, knowledge, expertise and judgment. Slight neglect or biased view can result in misleading conclusions. Demographic facts cannot have mathematical precision because of the intervention of exogenous factors. Changes taking place with time -and group cannot be properly observed, and quantified.

2. Relative Number
Students of population will be interested in collecting facts and establishing relations between sets of data and find out ratios and rates. Both ratios and rates – are relative figures and express a relation between two or more numbers. It is commonly felt that relative numbers are more useful or better than absolute numbers. But this opinion is not correct for all times and in all cases.

In certain cases absolute numbers can be more useful than relative numbers. Absolute numbers are raw data of population. Where comparison is indispensable or useful, relative numbers areĐ˛Đ‚â„˘ needed, or-else absolute numbers can serve, the purpose.

3.Rates,
Rates ate used to observe demographic figures in a meaningful way Birth rates, death rates, marriage rites, etc , are used in demographic studies. Some of the Important: demographic rates are asĐ˛Đ‚â„˘ follows:Đ˛Đ‚â„˘

1. Crude birth Đ˛Đ‚?rate: The Đ˛Đ‚?number of live births in the. year, per 1,000 population at mid-year.
2.. Crude death rates: The number of deathsĐ˛Đ‚â„˘ in the year, per 1,000 population at mid-year.
3 Crude marriage rate: The number of marriages (not persons marrying). in the year, per 1,000 population at mid-year.
4.Crude divorce rate:: The number, of divorces (not persons; divorcing) in the year, per 1,000 populationĐ˛Đ‚â„˘ at mid-Đ˛Đ‚â„˘year.
5; Crude rate of: natural Increase: Difference.. between . the crude birth and death rates.
6. Abortion Rate: The estimated, Đ˛Đ‚?number.. of abortions per1,000.women aged l5-44.years in a given year. , .
7, Age-specific, rate: Đ˛Đ‚?Rate ,obtained. for specific age groups for example, age-specific fertility rate, death rate, marriage rate, illiteracy rate, school enrolment rate, etc.).

8Đ˛Đ‚â„˘. General