Introduction to Psychopathology
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Introduction to Psychopathology
Considered a new field of study, abnormal psychology have evolved from a center of remote learning and minor parts to explain an individuals own nature, but by todays standards, contributions are prepared to enable clinicians, teachers, ministers, and social workers the ability to maintain contact with troubled individuals. Not very far the normal standards, abnormal psychology merely represents exaggerations of could be found within every individual. By attaining better abilities, a larger understanding of personal adjustment is managed to recognize better symptoms and provides the ability to make it right (White, 1948).
Examination into abnormal psychology can be split into two arenas. Viewing the history and understanding how abnormal psychology has become what is today or applications of surveys surrounding the facts constituting subjects of interest in abnormal psychology. Clinical methods allow for realism, vividness, and separating theory, and fact. The other advantage is experimentation between clinical and historical introduction (White, 1948).
Origins of Abnormal Psychology
The earliest attempts at treating mental disorders occurred during the Stone Age. A common treatment known as trephining was accomplished by medicine men or shaman who punctured an individuals skull to release the evil spirits. This particular method also used by Egyptians would lead to the belief that the brain was the primary area in control of mental function. Greece would encourage the progress of better understanding and treatment of mental illnesses as Hippocrates believed that development of illnesses and diseases including mental issues were affected naturally and needed appropriate treatment. Hippocrates also stressed the importance of predisposition, heredity, and injuries inflicting harm to motor and sensory areas (Butcher, Mineka & Hooley, 2010).
Plato concentrated on individuals not themselves during a crime and moved to have the community care for mentally ill individuals. Plato also stressed the importance of intellectual, abilities, and individuals as being different and mentioned that sociocultural influences influence behavior and thinking among mentally ill individuals. Galen followed up with taking a scientific approach to abnormal psychology separating causes into physical and mental categories (Butcher, Mineka & Hooley, 2010).
During the Middle Ages the aspects of science influencing Greek medicine had transpired as the first mental institutions were being assembled so mentally ill individuals could receive humane treatment. Europe was dealing with those individuals by way of exorcisms and murder. Approaches to humane treatment continued and concern and interest were at the forefront of a movement known as humanism. Through the following years, individuals such as Philippe Pinel, Dorothy Dix, and William Tuke saw to the humane treatment of the mentally ill and pushed for the moralization and improvement of mental hygiene among institutions. Within the past few centuries, communication, and education has been the importance of pinnacle in reforming mental institutions, hospitals, clinics, and wards in the treatment of mentally ill individuals (Butcher, Mineka & Hooley, 2010).
How Abnormal Psychology as Evolved into a Scientific Discipline
Wilhelm Wundt and William James demonstrated the scientific thoughts of psychology over their efforts surrounding the studies of psychological processes and objectivity. Though their work bears no direct bearing on understandings of abnormal behavior or clinicians in practice, they did influence the types of thought of those psychologists who attained these attitudes and applied to clinical use. Psychological factors surrounding memory and sensation contributed to the studies of abnormal behavior (Butcher, Mineka & Hooley, 2010).
These new laboratories brought about change and encouraged others to become influenced in assessing differences in mental processing as well as new areas of cause-sociocultural and environmental factors. With research being concluded, collection, analysis, and interpretation of collected data was soon becoming published by way of journals and publications that focus on personality function and abnormal behavior. Behavior perspectives such as classic and operant conditioning leading to changes and evolution in abnormal psychology as well as the contributions of those who have impressed upon our views of today (Butcher, Mineka & Hooley, 2010).
Assess Theoretical Viewpoints