Organic Chemistry Case
Organic Chemistry
1 IUP AC Nomenclature (Names are assigned systematically based on functional groups and carbon chain length)
Name Root (Assigned according to the longest chain)
Suffices (Assigned according to functional grollp–generally, the most oxidized fWlctional group gets top priority)
c} Prefixes (Assigned to note stereochemistry; i.e., R or 5, E or Z, CInd 0: or l5)
Common Nomenclature (Prefixes based on substihntion and relative positions of functional groups; i.e., geminal diol and secondary alcohol)
Bonding and Orbitals
Bonding (An attractive interaction between neighboring atoms)
Covalent Bond (The sharing of electrons between atoms; carbon makes covalent boods)
Single bonds <1re made of a sigma-bond; they are weaker than both double and triple bonds.. Double bonds are made of one sigma-bond and one It-bond; they are weaker than triple bonds, but stringer than single bonds. iii. Triple bonds are made of one sigma-bond and two rt-bonds; they are stronger than both single and double bonds. iv. Sigma-bonds share electron density between nuclei while r.-bonds share electron density in the plane above and below the nuclei. b) Molecular Orbitals Like atoms, bonds have electrons in regions of high probability, so there are sigma and pi orbitals to describe molecular bonds. Sigma bonding orbitals are more stable than pi bonding orbitals, while sigma anti-bondini orbitals are less stable than pi anti-bonding orbitals. 1l1ey fill (J ~1t*4cr*2 III. Anti-bonding orbitals have no overlap between atoms c) Structural Rules (Atoms obey predictable behavior when making bonds) Octet Rule (Atoms in the second row of the periodic table seek to complete their valence shell by obtaining eight electrons.) HONC Rule (In neutral molecules, H makes one bond, 0 makes two bonds, N makes three bonds, and C makes four bonds. If;an atom deviates from these values, it carries a charge.) Hybridization The mixing of atomic orbitals (s and p in organic chemistry) to form hybrid orbitals capable of combining to make molecular orbitals. sp-hybridization results in linear compounds, often with two IT-bonds, a 1SO" bond angle, and the

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Covalent Bond And Single Bonds. (June 9, 2021). Retrieved from